Judea means in the bible: Name given to the area after its return from exile in the south of west Palestine. The old kingdom of Judah was further north, and it included Ephraim’s southern portion. The main divisions of the empire were: 1 Shephelah (or “lowland”) to the west on the Philistine frontier, 2 the “hillcountry” to the north, measuring 35 miles and measuring 14-17 miles wide, which is composed of stony moorland that can be cultivated but is broken up into valleys where the land has some fruitfulness; 3 the Jordan Valley and Dead Sea to the east and 4 the Negev to the south, also known as the “Dry Land.” Judea, which was part of the Fifth Satrapy of Empire during the Persian dominance, was usually administered by a Jewish governor. Judea was given to Archelaus in the New Testament after Herod the Great’s death. It was deposed to the Roman Province of Syria. The prefect, or procurator, administered it. He generally lived in Caesarea.
(in Bible Dictionary)