Athens means in the bible: It was the ancient capital of Attica. However, it was located in the Roman province called Achaia at New Testament times. Many Athenians were now sucked into unprofitable conversations that Paul called “too religiously superstitious”. The Stoics, Epicureans and others represented philosophy. Paul made an important speech about Mars Hill on his second mission trip to Acts 17-18:1. However, it seems that his efforts were only partially successful.
(in Bible Dictionary)